I was not comfortable to leave the subject of folio 85v-1 without spending more time on the last figure’s jacket.
I think I’ve found not only an explanation for it, but an explanation of the oddly asymmetrical headwear .. and possibly even the fleur-de-lys which isn’t.
They can all be explained by reference to the Mongols in Persia. What put me off the scent was the seemingly European cast of the face. But drawing long, slender noses and pointed chins is pretty typical of Persian art.
Here is design of the Mongol jacket (and, by the way, a type of yurt which looks almost like the conical tents.)
Now for the headwear
What do you think?
Then, (on pages 149-150 of Judith Kolbas’ The Mongols in Iran: Chingiz Khan to Uljaytu 1220–1309) I read:
Almaligh produced money in 650 and 651H, and Bukhara and Samarquand issued large flat billon, probably in 651H. …. All of these inscriptions were similar to those of Bulghar and Tiflis, specifically in not having the name of the local dynast except in Fars. Instead, they had the great khan’s name and, except in Greater Khurasan and Transoxiana, his tamgha. In Fars, the imperial tamgha was artfully drawn to resemble a graceful fleur de lys …
So how about that?
As it happens, the ‘graceful fleur de lys’ here is really a version of a much older Persian motif – if this indeed the design which Kolbas means; this example doesn’t appear to have been made for Fars.
Altogether…. long odds on all these details occurring together by coincidence… but in the end, it’s the jacket that is so difficult to dismiss.
And since we’re talking about thundering soldiers of the east, did you know that the word ‘soldier’ comes from the term for the high-quality gold solidus with which they were paid from the time of Constantine to the tenth century or so?
Another coin from Mongol Persia.
What does it mean? It think it means that the diagram on folio 85v-1 is typically medieval in having several simultaneous readings.